Tag: not-read

181 links

www.science.org > Susan Landau
Digital exposure tools: Design for privacy, efficacy, and equity
10 sep. 2021 - Use of smartphone-based digital contact- tracing apps has shown promise in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic. But such apps can reveal very personal information; thus, their use raises important societal questions, not just during the current pandemic but as we learn and prepare for other inevitable outbreaks ahead. Can privacy-protective versions of such apps work? Are they efficacious? Because the apps influence who is notified of exposure and who gets tested—and possibly treated—we need to consider the apps in the context of health care equity. Exposure-notification apps are predicated on the assumption that if someone is informed of exposure, they will follow instructions to isolate. Such an expectation fails to take into account that isolation—and sometimes even seeking care when ill—is much harder for some populations than others. If apps are to work for all, and not make this worse for disadvantaged populations, there needs to be basic social infrastructure that supports testing, contact tracing, and isolation.
 · covid-19 · covid-19-apps · not-read

www.ftm.nl > Olaf Geurts and Ties Keyzer
Shell fluisterde Nederlands standpunt in over gas uit Rusland
11 sep. 2021 - Met een uitgekiende lobby beïnvloedde Shell het Nederlandse standpunt over Nord Stream 2. De Tweede Kamer wilde dat Brussel de oplevering en exploitatie van de controversiële gaspijpleiding zou gaan controleren. In plaats daarvan diende het kabinet stilletjes de agenda van Shell, dat de controle juist zoveel mogelijk in handen wilde houden van zijn Russische zakenpartner Gazprom. Dit blijkt uit een reconstructie van The Investigative Desk.
 · eu · gazprom · lobbying · netherlands · not-read · shell

www.ftm.nl > Casper Rouffaer
Van het beste pensioenstelsel ter wereld kraken de fundamenten
2 sep. 2021 - De solidariteit in het pensioenstelsel rust op verplichtingen. De meeste mensen doen mee aan een regeling die verplicht is voor alle werkgevers en werknemers in een bedrijfstak. Ook wanneer in 2027 een nieuw stelsel ingaat, blijft die ‘grote verplichtstelling’ overeind, tenzij Europa het kabinet terugfluit. De Kamer laat zich informeren door twee hoogleraren, maar die liggen erover in de clinch. Een van hen vindt de verplichtstelling ‘discriminerend’. Hij diende een klacht in bij de Europese Commissie.
 · netherlands · not-read · pensions

www.privacycompany.eu > Sjoera Nas
Google verhelpt 8 hoge privacyrisico's voor Workspace for Education
9 aug. 2021 - Google heeft ingestemd met belangrijke privacyverbeteringen in Google Workspace for Education- voor scholen en universiteiten in Nederland. Na intensieve onderhandelingen met vertegenwoordigers van de scholen en instellingen voor hoger onderwijs in Nederland heeft Google ermee ingestemd de hoge gegevensbeschermingsrisico's als gevolg van het gebruik van Google Workspace for Education te verlagen. Deze risico’s zijn beschreven in een DPIA die Privacy Company heeft uitgevoerd voor twee universiteiten.
 · education · google · not-read · privacy

www.eff.org > Jason Kelley
​​What to Do When Schools Use Canvas or Blackboard Logs to Allege Cheating
9 aug. 2021 - Over the past few months, students from all over the country have reached out to EFF and other advocacy organizations because their schools—including teachers and administrators—have made flimsy claims about cheating based on digital logs from online learning platforms that don’t hold up to scrutiny. Such claims were made against over a dozen students at the Dartmouth Geisel School of Medicine, which EFF and the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE) criticized for being a misuse, and misunderstanding, of the online learning platform technology. Dartmouth ended that investigation and dismissed all allegations after a media firestorm. If your school is making similar accusations against students, here’s what we recommend.
 · blackboard · canvas · education · educational-surveillance · not-read

papers.ssrn.com > Lindsey Barrett
Rejecting Test Surveillance in Higher Education
29 jul. 2021 - The rise of remote proctoring software during the COVID-19 pandemic illustrates the dangers of surveillance-enabled pedagogy built on the belief that students can’t be trusted. These services, which deploy a range of identification protocols, computer and internet access limitations, and human or automated observation of students as they take tests remotely, are marketed as necessary to prevent cheating. But the success of these services in their stated goal is ill- supported at best and discredited at worst, particularly given their highly over- inclusive criteria for “suspicious” behavior. Meanwhile, the harms they inflict on students are clear: severe anxiety among test-takers, concerning data collection and use practices, and discriminatory flagging of students of color and students with disabilities have provoked widespread outcry from students, professors, privacy advocates, policymakers, and sometimes universities themselves. To make matters worse, the privacy and civil rights laws most relevant to the use of these services are generally inadequate to protect students from the harms they inflict. Colleges and universities routinely face difficult decisions that require reconciling conflicting interests, but whether to use remote proctoring software isn’t one of them. Remote proctoring software is not pedagogically beneficial, institutionally necessary, or remotely unavoidable, and its use further entrenches inequities in higher education that schools should be devoted to rooting out. Colleges and universities should abandon remote proctoring software, and apply the lessons from this failed experiment to their other existing or potential future uses of surveillance technologies and automated decision-making systems that threaten students’ privacy, access to important life opportunities, and intellectual freedom.
 · educational-surveillance · not-read · proctoring

www.harihareswara.net > Sumana Harihareswara
What Would Open Source Look Like If It Were Healthy? Video & Transcript
6 may. 2021 - When I think about open source sustainability, I think about money, sure. But I also think about what configurations of funding would be more likely to keep legacy infrastructure ticking along AND provide R&D opportunities for innovators; what tooling we need; how a stronger ecology of consultancies would change the interactions among volunteers, companies, and other institutions; etc. I'll discuss what I've learned about healthy maintainership, and what a healthier future would look like for the open source industry.
 · not-read · open-source

www.eff.org > Haley Amster and Jason Kelley
A Long Overdue Reckoning For Online Proctoring Companies May Finally Be Here
22 jun. 2021 - Over the past year, the use of online proctoring apps has skyrocketed. But while companies have seen upwards of a 500% increase in their usage, legitimate concerns about their invasiveness, potential bias, and efficacy are also on the rise. These concerns even led to a U.S. Senate inquiry letter requesting detailed information from three of the top proctoring companies—Proctorio, ProctorU, and ExamSoft—which combined have proctored at least 30 million tests over the course of the pandemic.1 Unfortunately, the companies mostly dismissed the senators’ concerns, in some cases stretching the truth about how the proctoring apps work, and in other cases downplaying the damage this software inflicts on vulnerable students.
 · not-read · proctoring

www.fastcompany.com
1 year, $3.8 billion later: How 2020’s race reckoning shook up Big Tech
16 jun. 2021 - A year ago, as our lives were being upended by the pandemic, Black Americans were simultaneously processing the emotional weight and tragedy of the murders of George Floyd, Breonna Taylor, Ahmaud Arbery, and others whose lives were cut short due to police brutality. The world watched as protest after protest erupted across the country over the summer of 2020. But, unlike previous collective actions, this moment felt different. Big Tech and corporate America—predominantly white environments—broke their silence. Companies started pledging to do things differently, claiming they would doggedly support Black workers, Black organizations, and Black companies via investments, donations, and hiring pledges. At The Plug, a subscription news and insights platform covering the Black innovation economy, we quickly began documenting the commitments made by tech CEOs, cross-referencing them with data points of what Black representation looked like across their workforces and boards. (You can view the original spreadsheet here.) A year later, we’re proud to continue that work, in partnership with Fast Company. Together we set out to try to understand—through data and first-person accounts—if anything really changed. How have the lives of Black tech workers, users, and citizens been altered by the bold commitments these companies made?
 · not-read · platforms · racist-technology

www.nybooks.com > Umberto Eco
Ur-Fascism
22 jun. 1995 - I think it is possible to outline a list of features that are typical of what I would like to call Ur-Fascism, or Eternal Fascism. These features cannot be organized into a system; many of them contradict each other, and are also typical of other kinds of despotism or fanaticism. But it is enough that one of them be present to allow fascism to coagulate around it.
 · fascism · italy · not-read

arxiv.org > Bogdan Kulynych, Carmela Troncoso, Ero Balsa, Rebekah Overdorf and Seda Gürses
Questioning the assumptions behind fairness solutions
27 nov. 2018 - In addition to their benefits, optimization systems can have negative economic, moral, social, and political effects on populations as well as their environments. Frameworks like fairness have been proposed to aid service providers in addressing subsequent bias and discrimination during data collection and algorithm design. However, recent reports of neglect, unresponsiveness, and malevolence cast doubt on whether service providers can effectively implement fairness solutions. These reports invite us to revisit assumptions made about the service providers in fairness solutions. Namely, that service providers have (i) the incentives or (ii) the means to mitigate optimization externalities. Moreover, the environmental impact of these systems suggests that we need (iii) novel frameworks that consider systems other than algorithmic decision-making and recommender systems, and (iv) solutions that go beyond removing related algorithmic biases. Going forward, we propose Protective Optimization Technologies that enable optimization subjects to defend against negative consequences of optimization systems.
 · fairness · not-read

www.eff.org > Shirin Mori
Help Bring Dark Patterns To Light
19 may. 2021 - On social media, shopping sites, and even childrens’ apps, companies are using deceptive user experience design techniques to trick us into giving away our data, sharing our phone numbers and contact lists, and submitting to fees and subscriptions. Everyday, we’re exploited for profit through “dark patterns”: design tactics used in websites and apps to manipulate you into doing things you probably would not do otherwise.
 · dark-patterns · not-read

algorithmwatch.org > Matthias Spielkamp and Michele Loi
Towards accountability in the use of Artificial Intelligence for Public Administrations
18 may. 2021 - Michele Loi und Matthias Spielkamp analyze the regulatory content of 16 guideline documents about the use of AI in the public sector, by mapping their requirements to those of our philosophical account of accountability, and conclude that while some guidelines refer processes that amount to auditing, it seems that the debate would benefit from more clarity about the nature of the entitlement of auditors and the goals of auditing, also in order to develop ethically meaningful standards with respect to which different forms of auditing can be evaluated and compared.
 · accountability · artificial-intelligence · not-read

crookedtimber.org
The Ministry for the Future seminar
3 may. 2021 - Over the next ten days, we’re running a seminar on Kim Stanley Robinson’s recent novel about climate change and how our political and economic system might have to change to stop it, The Ministry for the Future. We’re happy to be able to do this – it’s an important book. Since it came out, it’s had an enormously enthusiastic reception (see e.g. Barack Obama and Ezra Klein). What we want to do in this seminar is not to celebrate it further (although it certainly deserves celebration) but to help it do its work in the world. So we’ve asked a number of people to respond to the book, by arguing it through and, as needs be, arguing with it. We’ve also published a reply by Stan.
 · climate-change · not-read

jitp.commons.gc.cuny.edu > Camea Davis and David L. Humphrey Jr.
“The Future Started Yesterday and We’re Already Late”: The Case for Antiracist Online Teaching
12 may. 2021 - Using Black critical theoretical perspectives and pedagogical examples from our experiences teaching in online learning environments, this article articulates a case for antiracist online education. In the midst of the deadliest convergence of three devastating global “pandemics”— the COVID-19 pandemic, the continued murdering of Black bodies, and abnormal environmental disasters precipitated by global warming—educational technology could be a vehicle of liberation yet it remains an apparatus of control, further exacerbating inequality, especially for Black students. The absence of specific references to antiracist pedagogical orientations in the extant literature and theory of online education is emblematic of the normativeness of anti-Black racism and white normativity in online education. An antiracist pedagogy for online education begins with creating spaces that bring attention to race, class, gender, and ability. The authors conclude with a call to action for a shift to antiracist online teaching for all learners.
 · black-struggle · not-read · online-education

decorrespondent.nl > Karin Amatmoekrim
De Holocaust was niet de eerste genocide door Duitsland
17 feb. 2021 - Tussen 1904 en 1908 vermoordden Duitse soldaten tienduizenden bewoners van wat nu Namibië heet. Ze deden dat volgens principes die de nazi’s later toepasten tijdens de Holocaust – zoals het onderscheid tussen superieure en minderwaardige mensen en met concentratiekampen. Toch is over deze genocide, zelfs onder historici, weinig bekend.
 · genocide · germany · namibia · nazism · not-read

op.europa.eu > Janneke Gerards and Raphaële Xenidis
Algorithmic discrimination in Europe : challenges and opportunities for gender equality and non-discrimination law.
10 mar. 2021 - This report investigates how algorithmic discrimination challenges the set of legal guarantees put in place in Europe to combat discrimination and ensure equal treatment. More specifically, it examines whether and how the current gender equality and non-discrimination legislative framework in place in the EU can adequately capture and redress algorithmic discrimination. It explores the gaps and weaknesses that emerge at both the EU and national levels from the interaction between, on the one hand, the specific types of discrimination that arise when algorithms are used in decision-making systems and, on the other, the particular material and personal scope of the existing legislative framework. This report also maps out the existing legal solutions, accompanying policy measures and good practice to address and redress algorithmic discrimination both at EU and national levels. Moreover, this report proposes its own integrated set of legal, knowledge-based and technological solutions to the problem of algorithmic discrimination.
 · algorithmic-bias · eu · feminism · not-read · racist-technology

quod.lib.umich.edu > Alfonso Sintjago, Autumm Caines, Belen Garcia de Hurtado, Carla Vecchiola, Christopher Casey, Jessica Riviere and Sarah Silverman
What Happens When You Close the Door on Remote Proctoring? Moving Toward Authentic Assessments with a People-Centered Approach
1 apr. 2021 - The COVID-19 pandemic made traditionally proctored in-person exams impossible. This article provides a summary of the arguments against institutional adoption of remote proctoring services with a focus on equity, an account of the decision to avoid remote proctoring on the University of Michigan–Dearborn campus, and conclusions and suggestions for other teaching and learning professionals who would like to take a similar approach. Remote proctoring services require access to technology that not all students are guaranteed to have, can constitute an invasion of privacy for students, and can discriminate against students of color and disabled students. Administrators and teaching and learning staff at the University of Michigan–Dearborn made the decision to avoid adopting remote proctoring technologies and to instead invest in instructional design staff and faculty development programming to help faculty transition to authentic assessments. Lessons learned and recommendations are provided for other educational developers or institutions who want to resist remote proctoring on their campuses.
 · not-read · proctoring

www.eff.org > Bill Budington, Jason Kelley and Sophia Cope
Proctoring Tools and Dragnet Investigations Rob Students of Due Process
15 apr. 2021 - Like many schools, Dartmouth College has increasingly turned to technology to monitor students taking exams at home. And while many universities have used proctoring tools that purport to help educators prevent cheating, Dartmouth’s Geisel School of Medicine has gone dangerously further. Apparently working under an assumption of guilt, the university is in the midst of a dragnet investigation of complicated system logs, searching for data that might reveal student misconduct, without a clear understanding of how those logs can be littered with false positives. Worse still, those attempting to assert their rights have been met with a university administration more willing to trust opaque investigations of inconclusive data sets rather than their own students.
 · due-process · not-read · proctoring

www.eff.org > Bennett Cyphers
After Cookies, Ad Tech Wants to Use Your Email to Track You Everywhere
12 apr. 2021 - Cookies are dying, and the tracking industry is scrambling to replace them. Google has proposed Federated Learning of Cohorts (FLoC), TURTLEDOVE, and other bird-themed tech that would have browsers do some of the behavioral profiling that third-party trackers do today. But a coalition of independent surveillance advertisers has a different plan. Instead of stuffing more tracking tech into the browser (which they don’t control), they’d like to use more stable identifiers, like email addresses, to identify and track users across their devices.
 · cookies · email · not-read · tracking

research.trivikverma.com > Fabio Tejedor
The Effect of Airbnb in the Gentrification Process in Amsterdam
30 oct. 2020 - There are relationships between Airbnb and gentrification, which goes beyond the increment in rent prices. The quantitative analysis showed that some populations are profiting more than others because Airbnb has spread in neighborhoods with specific characteristics. For instance, neighborhoods with higher percentages of young-adults of western origin and highly educated are receiving more benefits from Airbnb. More- over, Airbnb’s concentration is characterized by neighborhoods with relatively small liv- ing spaces with medium property values. These findings help understand that people in neighborhoods gentrified are getting more benefits for Airbnb. Besides, these neigh- borhoods are also characterized by high social mobility and small-medium-sized living spaces with fewer private owners. Consequently, rental prices can increase because the housing market is pressured in two ways; by the ongoing gentrification and the exacer- bation of short-term rentals. In this regard, people in these areas can perceive Airbnb as an incentive to shift the living house condition to an economic one.
 · airbnb · gentrification · not-read

www.tandfonline.com > Nikki Stevens and Os Keyes
Seeing infrastructure: race, facial recognition and the politics of data
26 mar. 2021 - Facial recognition technology (FRT) has been widely studied and criticized for its racialising impacts and its role in the overpolicing of minoritised communities. However, a key aspect of facial recognition technologies is the dataset of faces used for training and testing. In this article, we situate FRT as an infrastructural assemblage and focus on the history of four facial recognition datasets: the original dataset created by W.W. Bledsoe and his team at the Panoramic Research Institute in 1963; the FERET dataset collected by the Army Research Laboratory in 1995; MEDS-I (2009) and MEDS-II (2011), the datasets containing dead arrestees, curated by the MITRE Corporation; and the Diversity in Faces dataset, created in 2019 by IBM. Through these four exemplary datasets, we suggest that the politics of race in facial recognition are about far more than simply representation, raising questions about the potential side-effects and limitations of efforts to simply ‘de-bias’ data.
 · facial-recognition · not-read · racist-technology

medium.com > Alexander Todorov, Blaise Agüera y Arcas and Margaret Mitchell
Do algorithms reveal sexual orientation or just expose our stereotypes?
11 jan. 2018 - A study claiming that artificial intelligence can infer sexual orientation from facial images caused a media uproar in the Fall of 2017. The Economist featured this work on the cover of their September 9th magazine; on the other hand two major LGBTQ organizations, The Human Rights Campaign and GLAAD, immediately labeled it “junk science”. Michal Kosinski, who co-authored the study with fellow researcher Yilun Wang, initially expressed surprise, calling the critiques “knee-jerk” reactions. However, he then proceeded to make even bolder claims: that such AI algorithms will soon be able to measure the intelligence, political orientation, and criminal inclinations of people from their facial images alone.
 · artificial-intelligence · gay-rights · machine-learning · not-read

www.ftm.nl > Dennis Mijnheer and Siem Eikelenboom
Nederlandse bedrijven worstelen met de Oeigoerenkwestie
3 apr. 2021 - D66-Kamerlid Sjoerd Sjoerdsma staat op China’s zwarte lijst vanwege een motie die de behandeling van Oeigoeren als genocide bestempelt. Bijna tegelijkertijd krijgt H&M een Chinese boycot voor de kiezen, omdat de kledingfabrikant zich kritisch uitlaat over dwangarbeid in Chinese fabrieken. Dit zet ook het Nederlandse bedrijfsleven voor het blok: doen we nog zaken met Chinese fabrieken waar Oeigoeren werken? En hoe zit het met investeringen in Xinjiang?
 · china · netherlands · not-read · uyghur-struggle

digitalcommons.odu.edu > D. E. Wittkower
Principles of Anti-Discriminatory Design
1 may. 2016 - Technical design can produce exclusionary and even discriminatory effects for users. A lack of discriminatory intent is insufficient to avoid discriminatory design, since implicit assumptions about users rarely include all relevant user demographics, and in some cases, designing for all relevant users is actually impossible. To minimize discriminatory effects of technical design, an actively anti-discriminatory design perspective must be adopted. This article provides examples of discriminatory user exclusion, then defining exclusionary design in terms of disaffordances and dysaffordances. Once these definitions are in place, principles of anti-discriminatory design are advanced, drawing upon a method of phenomenological variation employed in the context of standpoint epistemology.
 · design · discrimination · epistemology · not-read

blog.cryptographyengineering.com > Matthew Green
What’s in your browser (backup)?
25 mar. 2021 - It’s not every day that I wake up thinking about how people back up their web browsers. Mostly this is because I don’t feel the need to back up any aspect of my browsing. Some people lovingly maintain huge libraries of bookmarks and use fancy online services to organize them. I pay for one of those because I aspire to be that kind of person, but I’ve never been organized enough to use it.
 · apple · browsers · not-read · security

www.youtube.com > Kate Crawford
The Trouble with Bias - NIPS 2017 Keynote
10 dec. 2017 - Kate Crawford is a leading researcher, academic and author who has spent the last decade studying the social implications of data systems, machine learning and artificial intelligence. She is a Distinguished Research Professor at New York University, a Principal Researcher at Microsoft Research New York, and a Visiting Professor at the MIT Media Lab.
 · algorithmic-bias · artificial-intelligence · deepmind · machine-learning · not-read · robots · self-driving-cars

journals.sagepub.com > Catherine D'Ignazio and Lauren F. Klein
Seven intersectional feminist principles for equitable and actionable COVID-19 data
30 jul. 2020 - This essay offers seven intersectional feminist principles for equitable and actionable COVID-19 data, drawing from the authors' prior work on data feminism. Our book, Data Feminism (D'Ignazio and Klein, 2020), offers seven principles which suggest possible points of entry for challenging and changing power imbalances in data science. In this essay, we offer seven sets of examples, one inspired by each of our principles, for both identifying existing power imbalances with respect to the impact of the novel coronavirus and its response, and for beginning the work of change.
 · covid-19 · data-ethics · data-feminism · feminism · not-read

aiethics.princeton.edu
Case Study PDFs
24 jan. 2019 - Below are a set of fictional case studies that are designed to prompt reflection and discussion about issues at the intersection of AI and Ethics. These case studies were developed out of an interdisciplinary workshop series at Princeton University that began in 2017-18. They are the product of a research collaboration between the University Center for Human Values (UCHV) and the Center for Information Technology Policy (CITP) at Princeton. Click the title of each case study to download the full document.
 · ai-ethics · artificial-intelligence · ethics · not-read · project-nhl

www.eff.org > Joe Mullin
Student Surveillance Vendor Proctorio Files SLAPP Lawsuit to Silence A Critic
23 feb. 2021 - During the pandemic, a dangerous business has prospered: invading students’ privacy with proctoring software and apps. In the last year, we’ve seen universities compel students to download apps that collect their face images, driver’s license data, and network information. Students who want to move forward with their education are sometimes forced to accept being recorded in their own homes and having the footage reviewed for “suspicious” behavior.
 · educational-surveillance · not-read · proctoring · proctorio

www.cambridge.org > Jenny Andersson
Ghost in a Shell: The Scenario Tool and the World Making of Royal Dutch Shell
This article examines the history of the Royal Dutch Shell scenarios, from the first horizon scan exercise in 1967. It proposes that forward-looking scenarios were integrated in planning at Shell as tools for managing uncertainty in global time and space relations of oil after 1967. Specifically, the article proposes that Shell strategically used the scenarios to respond to arguments, emanating both from OPEC and from the Club of Rome, of oil as a limited resource. Shell used the scenarios to create images of a future oil market dominated by innovation, creativity, and sustainable solutions.
 · not-read · scenario-thinking · shell

www.youtube.com > Lisa Nakamura and Philip Howard
Understanding Digital Racism After COVID-19
12 nov. 2020 - The Oxford Internet Institute hosts Lisa Nakamura, Director Digital Studies Institute, Gwendolyn Calvert Baker Collegiate Professor, Department of American Culture, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Professor Nakamura is the founding Director of the Digital Studies Institute at the University of Michigan, and a writer focusing on digital media, race, and gender.
 · covid-19 · not-read · racist-technology · social-media

www.ethicsinc-ontwerpspel.nl > Huib Aldewereld, Roelant Ossewaarde, Roland Bijvank, Rudy van Belkom and Stefan Leijnen
An Agile Framework for Trustworthy AI
The ethics guidelines put forward by the AI High Level Expert Group (AI-HLEG) present a list of seven key requirements that Human-centered, trustworthy AI systems should meet. These guidelines are useful for the evaluation of AI systems, but can be complemented by applied methods and tools for the development of trustworthy AI systems in practice. In this position paper we propose a framework for translating the AI-HLEG ethics guidelines into the specific context within which an AI system operates. This approach aligns well with a set of Agile principles commonly employed in software engineering.
 · artificial-intelligence · not-read · project-nhl · responsible-ai

www.eff.org > Bill Budington, Erica Portnoy and Matthew Guariglia
Amazon Ring’s End-to-End Encryption: What it Means
2 feb. 2021 - Almost one year after EFF called on Amazon’s surveillance doorbell company Ring to encrypt footage end-to-end, it appears they are starting to make this necessary change. This call was a response to a number of problematic and potentially harmful incidents, including larger concerns about Ring’s security and reports that employees were fired for watching customers’ videos. Now, Ring is finally taking a necessary step—making sure that the transmission of footage from your Ring camera to your phone cannot be viewed by others, including while that footage is stored on Amazon’s cloud.
 · amazon · encryption · not-read · ring-doorbell

firstmonday.org > Rianka Singh
Resistance in a minor key
4 may. 2020 - This is the age of amplification. Being represented, heard, and rendered visible is the dominant and common approach to understanding both off-line and online feminist activism. As part of the amplified stage, digital platforms facilitate increased visibility. But the quiet resistance of those who do not take so readily to platforms is also mediated by the digital. This paper looks toward resistance that is quieter. It is resistance based on care, survival, and safety. In this article I ask: what does a digital activism look like that takes into account the ways in which people organize not just so that they can be heard, but so they can survive?
 · activism · not-read · self-care

www.iisd.org > Paola Bettelli
What the World Learned Setting Development Goals
29 jan. 2021 - The Millennium Development Goals taught us that having a measurement framework for development promotes monitoring and increases accountability. Despite the world being "off track" to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, they may offer the best option to coordinate a global response to COVID-19, reduce the worst impacts, and “build back better.”
 · covid-19 · not-read · sustainable-development-goals

www.eff.org > Cory Doctorow
Twitter and Interoperability: Some Thoughts From the Peanut Gallery
25 jan. 2021 - Late in 2019, Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey floated "Project Blue Sky," a plan for an interoperable, federated, standardized Twitter that would let users (or toolsmiths who work on behalf of users) gain more control over their participation in the Twitter system. This was an exciting moment for us, a significant lurch towards an interoperable, decentralized social media world. We were especially excited to see Dorsey cite Mike Masnick's excellent Protocols, Not Products paper.
 · interoperability · not-read · twitter

bijnaderinzien.com > Savriel Dillingh
Wat betekent solidariteit tijdens de coronacrisis?
19 jan. 2021 - De kans is groot dat onze volksvertegenwoordigers zich tijdens de volgende persconferentie wederom zullen beroepen op solidariteit. “Beste mensen,” zal Hugo de Jonge zeggen, “we moeten het écht samen doen.” Hij herhaalde het op 3 november tot tweemaal toe. En hij zei ook: “De maatregelen die we vandaag extra nemen, die nemen we met een goede reden. Uit solidariteit met mensen die werken in de zorg. Uit solidariteit met de mensen die zorg nodig hebben. En ook uit solidariteit met de mensen die juist geraakt worden door de maatregelen die noodzakelijk zijn.” Het woord is onderhand een welbekend stijlfiguur in de persconferenties op dinsdagavond. Maar wat betekent solidariteit voor dit kabinet en, misschien belangrijker, waarom lijkt dit pleidooi steeds minder gehoor te vinden bij zoveel Nederlanders?
 · covid-19 · not-read · solidarity

www.eff.org > Jason Kelley
Face Surveillance and the Capitol Attack
12 jan. 2021 - After last week’s violent attack on the Capitol, law enforcement is working overtime to identify the perpetrators. This is critical to accountability for the attempted insurrection. Law enforcement has many, many tools at their disposal to do this, especially given the very public nature of most of the organizing. But we object to one method reportedly being used to determine who was involved: law enforcement using facial recognition technologies to compare photos of unidentified individuals from the Capitol attack to databases of photos of known individuals. There are just too many risks and problems in this approach, both technically and legally, to justify its use.
 · facial-recognition · not-read

berthub.eu > Bert Hubert
5G: The outsourced elephant in the room
20 jan. 2020 - In a break from the usual GPS/Galileo, DNA and C++ posts, here is a bit on 5G and national security. It turns out that through PowerDNS and its parent company Open-Xchange, we know a lot about how large scale European communication service providers work - most of whom are our customers in some way.
 · 5g · huawei · not-read · security

www.eff.org > Jacob Hoffman-Andrews and Lindsay Oliver
Student Privacy and the Fight to Keep Spying Out of Schools: Year in Review 2020
29 dec. 2020 - As students were sent home from school in the spring due to the coronavirus pandemic, schools followed them home with invasive surveillance technology. This trend, spurred by the surge in remote learning, was an opportunistic move by tech companies and schools already in a race to control students through technology.
 · educational-surveillance · educational-technology · not-read

www.nber.org > Alan L. Zhang, Baozhong Yang, Sean Cao and Wei Jiang
How to Talk When a Machine is Listening: Corporate Disclosure in the Age of AI
1 oct. 2020 - This paper analyzes how corporate disclosure has been reshaped by machine processors, employed by algorithmic traders, robot investment advisors, and quantitative analysts. Our findings indicate that increasing machine and AI readership, proxied by machine downloads, motivates firms to prepare filings that are more friendly to machine parsing and processing. Moreover, firms with high expected machine downloads manage textual sentiment and audio emotion in ways catered to machine and AI readers, such as by differentially avoiding words that are perceived as negative by computational algorithms as compared to those by human readers, and by exhibiting speech emotion favored by machine learning software processors. The publication of Loughran and McDonald (2011) is instrumental in attributing the change in the measured sentiment to machine and AI readership. While existing research has explored how investors and researchers apply machine learning and computational tools to quantify qualitative information from disclosure and news, this study is the first to identify and analyze the feedback effect on corporate disclosure decisions, i.e., how companies adjust the way they talk knowing that machines are listening.
 · artificial-intelligence · corporate-disclosure · not-read · transparency

www.eurozine.com > Boaventura de Sousa Santos
Beyond abyssal thinking: From global lines to ecologies of knowledges
29 jun. 2007 - Modern Western thinking continues to operate along abyssal lines that divide the human from the sub-human, argues Boaventura de Sousa Santos in a fundamental article. The "Western" side of this line is ruled by a dichotomy of regulation and emancipation, and the other by appropriation and violence. The only way to capture the full measure of what is going on, writes Santos, is a gigantic decentring effort. The struggle for global social justice must be a struggle for global cognitive justice as well. In order to succeed, this struggle requires a new kind of thinking, a post-abyssal thinking.
 · black-struggle · east-west · not-read

digitalfreedomfund.org > Nani Jansen Reventlow
Envisioning a Decolonised Digital Rights Field – and Chartering Next Steps
5 dec. 2020 - How do we create change? Numerous books, essays and TED talks have been dedicated to this question, and courses have been designed to equip us to change policy, workplace environments, and numerous other contexts. A crucial ingredient seems to be having a vision of what that change should look like: what is the point on the horizon to set your compass towards?
 · black-struggle · not-read

ondermediadoctoren.nl
Afl 130: AI in het journalistieke proces
23 nov. 2020 - Tegenwoordig lijkt iedereen iets met AI te moeten en dat geldt ook voor de vertegenwoordigers van de pers. Zo gebruiken journalisten AI in hun proces van informatie zoeken. Hoe doen ze dat? En is dit goed of slecht voor de kwaliteit van de journalistiek? In deze aflevering verwonderen de Mediadoctoren zich over de inzet van AI in het journalistieke proces. Dat doen we met Yael de Haan, lector Kwaliteitsjournalistiek in Digitale Transitie aan de Hogeschool Utrecht.
 · artificial-intelligence · journalism · not-read · project-hva

open.spotify.com
Programmed Racism - Global Digital Cultures
24 nov. 2020 - This episode is part of the GDC Webinar series that took place on september 2020. How do digital technologies mediate racism? It is increasingly clear that digital technologies, including auto-complete function, facial recognition, and profiling tools are not neutral but racialized in specific ways. This webinar focuses on the different modes of programmed racism. We present historical and contemporary examples of racial bias in computational systems and learn about the potential of Civic AI. We discuss the need for a global perspective and postcolonial approaches to computation and discrimination. What research agenda is needed to address current problems and inequalities? Chair: Lonneke van der Velden, University of Amsterdam Speakers: Sennay Ghebreab,  Associate Professor of informatics, University of Amsterdam and Scientific Director of the Civic AI Lab, for civic-centered and community minded design, development and development of AI Linnet Taylor, Associate Professor at the Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT), PI of the ERC-funded Global Data Justice Project. Payal Arora, Professor and Chair in Technology, Values, and Global Media Cultures at the Erasmus School of Philosophy, Erasmus University Rotterdam and Author of the ‘Next Billion Users’ with Harvard Press.
 · algorithmic-bias · facial-recognition · not-read · racist-technology

www.youtube.com
Understanding Digital Racism After COVID-19
12 nov. 2020 - The Oxford Internet Institute hosts Lisa Nakamura, Director Digital Studies Institute, Gwendolyn Calvert Baker Collegiate Professor, Department of American Culture, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Professor Nakamura is the founding Director of the Digital Studies Institute at the University of Michigan, and a writer focusing on digital media, race, and gender. 'We are living in an open-ended crisis with two faces: unexpected accelerated digital adoption and an impassioned and invigorated racial justice movement. These two vast and overlapping cultural transitions require new inquiry into the entangled and intensified dialogue between race and digital technology after COVID. My project analyzes digital racial practices on Facebook, Twitter, Zoom, and TikTok while we are in the midst of a technological and racialized cultural breaking point, both to speak from within the crisis and to leave a record for those who come after us. How to Understand Digital Racism After COVID-19 contains three parts: Methods, Objects, and Making, designed to provide humanists and critical social scientists from diverse disciplines or experience levels with pragmatic and easy to use tools and methods for accelerated critical analyses of the digital racial pandemic.'
 · black-struggle · covid-19 · not-read · racist-technology · social-media

www.dukeupress.edu > Louise Amoore
Cloud Ethics
1 may. 2020 - In Cloud Ethics Louise Amoore examines how machine learning algorithms are transforming the ethics and politics of contemporary society. Conceptualizing algorithms as ethicopolitical entities that are entangled with the data attributes of people, Amoore outlines how algorithms give incomplete accounts of themselves, learn through relationships with human practices, and exist in the world in ways that exceed their source code. In these ways, algorithms and their relations to people cannot be understood by simply examining their code, nor can ethics be encoded into algorithms. Instead, Amoore locates the ethical responsibility of algorithms in the conditions of partiality and opacity that haunt both human and algorithmic decisions. To this end, she proposes what she calls cloud ethics—an approach to holding algorithms accountable by engaging with the social and technical conditions under which they emerge and operate.
 · algorithmic-bias · data-ethics · not-read · project-hva · racist-technology

ainowinstitute.org > Kate Crawford, Meredith Whittaker and Sarah Myers West
Discriminating Systems: Gender, Race, and Power in AI
1 apr. 2019 - The diversity crisis in AI is well-documented and wide-reaching. It can be seen in unequal workplaces throughout industry and in academia, in the disparities in hiring and promotion, in the AI technologies that reflect and amplify biased stereotypes, and in the resurfacing of biological determinism in automated systems.
 · artificial-intelligence · not-read · racist-technology

people.csail.mit.edu > Michael Specter, Neha Narula, Ronald L. Rivest and Sunoo Park
Going from Bad to Worse: From Internet Voting to Blockchain Voting
6 nov. 2020 - Voters are understandably concerned about election security. News reports of possible election in-terference by foreign powers, of unauthorized voting, of voter disenfranchisement, and of technologicalfailures call into question the integrity of elections worldwide.This article examines the suggestions that “voting over the Internet” or “voting on the blockchain”would increase election security, and finds such claims to be wanting and misleading. While currentelection systems are far from perfect, Internet- and blockchain-based voting would greatly increase therisk of undetectable, nation-scale election failures.Online voting may seem appealing: voting from a computer or smartphone may seem convenient andaccessible. However, studies have been inconclusive, showing that online voting may have little to noeffect on turnout in practice, and it may even increase disenfranchisement. More importantly: given thecurrent state of computer security, any turnout increase derived from with Internet- or blockchain-basedvoting would come at the cost of losing meaningful assurance that votes have been counted as they werecast, and not undetectably altered or discarded. This state of affairs will continue as long as standardtactics such as malware, zero days, and denial-of-service attacks continue to be effective.This article analyzes and systematizes prior research on the security risks of online and electronicvoting, and show that not only do these risks persist in blockchain-based voting systems, but blockchainsmay introduceadditionalproblems for voting systems. Finally, we suggest questions for critically assessingsecurity risks of new voting system proposals.
 · blockchain · electronic-voting · not-read · voting

www.eff.org > Rory Mir
End University Mandates for COVID Tech
16 nov. 2020 - Since the COVID-19 crisis began, many universities have looked to novel technologies to assist their efforts to retain in-person operations. Most prominent are untested contact tracing and notification applications or devices. While universities must commit to public health, too often these programs invade privacy and lack transparency. To make matters worse, some universities mandate these technologies for students, faculty, staff, and even visitors. As we’ve stated before, forcing people to install COVID-related technology on their personal devices is the wrong call.
 · covid-19 · educational-surveillance · not-read

www.eff.org > Adam Schwartz
No Police Body Cams Without Strict Safeguards
2 nov. 2020 - EFF opposes police Body Worn Cameras (BWCs), unless they come with strict safeguards to ensure they actually promote officer accountability without surveilling the public. Police already have too many surveillance technologies, and deploy them all too frequently against people of color and protesters. We have taken this approach since 2015, when we opposed a federal grant to the LAPD for purchase of BWCs, because the LAPD failed to adopt necessary safeguards about camera activation, public access to footage, officer misuse of footage, and face recognition. Also, communities must be empowered to decide for themselves whether police may deploy BWCs on their streets.
 · biometrics · not-read · police-body-cams · privacy

www.eff.org > Mitch Stoltz
Antitrust Suit Against Google is a Watershed Moment
29 oct. 2020 - The antitrust lawsuit against Google filed by the Department of Justice (DOJ) and eleven state attorneys general has the potential to be the most important competition case against a technology company since the DOJ’s 1998 suit against Microsoft. The complaint is broad, covering Google’s power over search generally, along with search advertising. Instead of asking for money damages, the complaint asks for Google to be restructured and its illegal behavior restricted.
 · antitrust · google · not-read

www.theverge.com > Josh Dzieza
Inside Foxconn’s empty buildings, empty factories, and empty promises in Wisconsin
19 oct. 2020 - In 2017, then-Governor Scott Walker and President Trump announced a historic deal with Foxconn to bring manufacturing jobs to Wisconsin. But none of the jobs, buildings, or promises have been fulfilled—and look like they never will. The Verge’s Josh Dzieza investigates two years of what happened behind the scenes at Foxconn in Wisconsin.
 · foxconn · not-read · united-states

www.fairphone.com > Dorothea Kessler
iFixit Guest Blog: What comes after a 10/10 score?
17 oct. 2020 - By now you know the consumer cycle: another year, another phone, right? But Fairphone isn’t one to follow the crowd. Their newest offering, the Fairphone 3+, is an upgraded version of the 3—one of only two phones to ever earn a 10/10 iFixit repairability score (Fairphone made the other one, too). So we were wondering: how do you “plus” a perfect score?
 · fairphone · not-read · right-to-repair

www.tandfonline.com > Kara H. Woo and Karl W. Broman
Data Organization in Spreadsheets
1 jun. 2017 - Spreadsheets are widely used software tools for data entry, storage, analysis, and visualization. Focusing on the data entry and storage aspects, this article offers practical recommendations for organizing spreadsheet data to reduce errors and ease later analyses. The basic principles are: be consistent, write dates like YYYY-MM-DD, do not leave any cells empty, put just one thing in a cell, organize the data as a single rectangle (with subjects as rows and variables as columns, and with a single header row), create a data dictionary, do not include calculations in the raw data files, do not use font color or highlighting as data, choose good names for things, make backups, use data validation to avoid data entry errors, and save the data in plain text files.
 · excel · not-read · spreadsheets

insights.nursekillam.com > Nurse Killam
Exam Design: Promoting Integrity Through Trust and Flexibility
6 apr. 2020 - I spent a lot of time thinking about how to design my exam after a mid-semester pivot to online learning due to COVID-19. In the end, my exams this term are open book with no time limit. They have a due date but are open for a week or more. I am even open to extending it. Students can go in and out of the exam as many times as they want. I also provided them with a downloadable copy of the exam so they could work on it outside of Moodle. The response has been overwhelmingly positive and my decisions are founded in good pedagogy.
 · examination · not-read · proctoring · project-iis · trust

journals.sfu.ca > John F. Hulpke
To tell the truth sometimes it pays to lie
17 sep. 2020 - Thou shalt not lie. Kant famously said one must always tell the truth. Even with a murderer at the door one cannot lie. Probably no one else holds this extreme view. There are times a lie is appropriate, ethical. When might it be permissible to lie? Are there times when it might be not only OK to lie but be appropriate to lie? But others remind us that a business cannot succeed in the long run by lying, In education we help people learn how to make effective and ethical choices. Specific examples and minicases related to these issues help get classroom or online conversations started. Question are discussed, usually in dyads. The discussion does not end here. Our classroom experiences and feedback from students convinces us: to tell the truth, sometimes it pays to lie.
 · education · ethics · lying · not-read · truth

newleftreview.org > Robert Brenner
Escalating Plunder
22 jun. 2020 - In the US, amid soaring unemployment, loss of health insurance and rising poverty, a $4 trillion hand-out to capital, with Biden’s party and Trump’s shoulder to shoulder. Robert Brenner analyses the Covid-19 bailout in the broader context of a faltering productive economy and growing elite predation.
 · bailout · not-read · united-states

osf.io > Ian Brown
The technical components of interoperability as a tool for competition regulation
10 sep. 2020 - The first paper in this series, Interoperability as a tool for competition regulation, focused on policy issues. This second paper looks at the technical details and requirements of interoperability in practice. The third paper will analyse the impact of interoperability on phenomena such as disinformation and privacy (preliminarily covered in the first paper). As well as a review of relevant policy and computer science literature, these papers draw on 10 semi-structured interviews with software developers, platform operators, technical standards experts, current and former government officials, and academic and civil society experts working in this field. This paper is intended to support civil society and parliamentary groups developing positions on ex ante competition rules in the EU’s proposed Digital Services Act, and digital competition reforms in other jurisdictions.
 · interoperability · not-read

www.economicliberties.us > Moe Tkacik
Rescuing Restaurants: How to Protect Restaurants, Workers, and Communities from Predatory Delivery App Corporations
18 sep. 2020 - At the end of March 2020, about two weeks into the national coronavirus lockdown, three of the leading food delivery apps were struck by the same marketing strategy, aligning themselves with a mission to “save” independent restaurants. Postmates shot an ad campaign titled “#OrderLocal” featuring celebrities like Mindy Kaling saying, “You don’t want to come out of this tough time and find that all your favorite small businesses are closed.” DoorDash launched a campaign called “Open for Delivery,” temporarily waiving the delivery fees charged to consumers, and later followed up with an ad campaign featuring celebrities like George Lopez and Ming-Na Wen talking about restaurant jobs they had before they were famous. Grubhub also rolled out a promotion called “Supper for Support,” exhorting its 23.9 million users to rally around the small enterprises that “are the lifeblood of our communities” and promising a $10 discount on any order placed between 5 p.m. and 9 p.m. as a kind of reward for their solidarity, “so you can save while supporting the restaurants you love.” 
 · doordash · gig-economy · grubhub · not-read

link.springer.com > Annelies Raes, Fien Depaepe, Ine Windey and Loulou Detienne
A systematic literature review on synchronous hybrid learning: gaps identified
28 nov. 2019 - More and more higher educational institutions invest in technology-enhanced learning spaces, which raises the question of how these environments can be shaped to be as effective as possible. A specific new learning space is the synchronous hybrid or blended learning environment in which both on-site and remote students can simultaneously attend learning activities. Given that synchronous hybrid learning is relatively new, there are few studies that have investigated its use and effectiveness. This study synthesised the best available evidence worldwide to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of the current research regarding the benefits, challenges and current design principles to set up synchronous hybrid learning. In line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, we included 47 studies which were analysed to respond to our research questions. One of the main findings is that existing research suggests cautious optimism about synchronous hybrid learning which creates a more flexible, engaging learning environment compared to fully online or fully on-site instruction. Yet, this new learning space has several challenges which are both pedagogical and technological in nature. To meet these challenges, several design guidelines are formulated. A final conclusion is that most of the existing literature is exploratory and qualitative in nature and has focused mostly on descriptions of students’ experiences, the organisational implementation and the technological design. Empirical studies have only begun to emerge and more research is needed into different pedagogical scenarios and their impact on student outcomes.
 · hybrid-learning · not-read · project-iis

ilsr.org > Ron Knox, Stacy Mitchell and Zach Freed
Report: Amazon’s Monopoly Tollbooth
11 aug. 2020 - Amazon’s dominance of online retail means that hundreds of thousands of small businesses must rely on its site to reach customers. In this report, we find that Amazon is exploiting its gatekeeper power to extract a growing cut of the revenue earned by these sellers. It’s doing this by imposing ever-larger fees on them. This tactic is hobbling sellers and often dooming their businesses. It’s also enabling Amazon to entrench its monopoly grip on e-commerce, while expanding its dominance into logistics and advertising.
 · amazon · antitrust · not-read

www.infoq.com > Vivian Hu
The First Wave of GPT-3 Enabled Applications Offer a Preview of Our AI Future
12 aug. 2020 - The first wave of GPT-3 powered applications are emerging. After priming of only a few examples, GPT-3 could write essays, answer questions, and even generate computer code! Furthermore, GPT-3 can perform algebraic calculations and language translations despite never being taught such concepts. However, GPT-3 is a black box with unpredictable outcomes. Developers must use it responsively.
 · artificial-intelligence · data-science · gpt-3 · machine-learning · not-read

blog.mahabali.me > Maha Bali
Building Trust & Creating Online Safe Spaces for Marginalized Participants
11 aug. 2020 - I think about this a lot. I know there are articles on it. There isn’t one that comes to mind immediately, and there are many angles to this one, including from the angle of data privacy and security, from the angle if policy making, and from other angles as well. I want to focus on the social aspect in a more generic sense and give concrete practical tips that can work for teaching but also scholarly places, as I have recently had several experiences where minorities/marginalized folks may have been made to feel unsafe.
 · codes-of-conduct · not-read · trust

educationaltechnologyjournal.springeropen.com > Alla Anohina-Naumeca, Debora Weber-Wulff, Dita Dlabolová, Jean Guerrero-Dib, Július Kravjar, Laima Kamzola, Özgür Çelik, Salim Razı and Tomáš Foltýnek
Testing of support tools for plagiarism detection
27 jul. 2020 - There is a general belief that software must be able to easily do things that humans find difficult. Since finding sources for plagiarism in a text is not an easy task, there is a wide-spread expectation that it must be simple for software to determine if a text is plagiarized or not. Software cannot determine plagiarism, but it can work as a support tool for identifying some text similarity that may constitute plagiarism. But how well do the various systems work? This paper reports on a collaborative test of 15 web-based text-matching systems that can be used when plagiarism is suspected. It was conducted by researchers from seven countries using test material in eight different languages, evaluating the effectiveness of the systems on single-source and multi-source documents. A usability examination was also performed. The sobering results show that although some systems can indeed help identify some plagiarized content, they clearly do not find all plagiarism and at times also identify non-plagiarized material as problematic.
 · not-read · plagiarism

science.sciencemag.org > Brian Powers, Christine Vogeli, Sendhil Mullainathan and Ziad Obermeyer
Dissecting racial bias in an algorithm used to manage the health of populations
25 oct. 2019 - The U.S. health care system uses commercial algorithms to guide health decisions. Obermeyer et al. find evidence of racial bias in one widely used algorithm, such that Black patients assigned the same level of risk by the algorithm are sicker than White patients (see the Perspective by Benjamin). The authors estimated that this racial bias reduces the number of Black patients identified for extra care by more than half. Bias occurs because the algorithm uses health costs as a proxy for health needs. Less money is spent on Black patients who have the same level of need, and the algorithm thus falsely concludes that Black patients are healthier than equally sick White patients. Reformulating the algorithm so that it no longer uses costs as a proxy for needs eliminates the racial bias in predicting who needs extra care.
 · algorithmic-bias · healthcare · not-read · racist-technology · united-states

adamnash.blog > Adam Nash
Be a Great Product Leader
16 dec. 2011 - People who know me professionally know that I'm passionate about Product Management.  I truly believe that, done properly, a strong product leader acts as a force multiplier that can help a cross-functional team of great technologies and designers do their best work.
 · not-read · product-management

www.robinwharton.com > Robin Wharton
Re-Thinking Plagiarism as Unfair Competition
24 mar. 2006 - In her article, “The Economics of Authorship: Online Paper Mills, Student Writers, and First Year Composition,” in College Composition and Communication, our moderator, Kelly Ritter argues that in re-thinking plagiarism and how we should respond to the so-called plagiarism “crisis,” we must take a closer look at the circumstances that lead some of our students to cheat by purchasing papers from on-line paper mills. She observes that, “In order to truly understand how and why students continue to engage in dishonest practices in the composition classroom, we thus must seek to understand how and when students see themselves as authors; how students see themselves as consumers, not just in the purchase of a college education, but also in a society defined by anonymity, convenience, and privacy; and how students reconcile the warring concepts of author and consumer in the space of their own writing.” Thus, in Ritter’s analysis, “these occasions of whole-text plagiarism may fail to ‘patch’ together source material [in the sense of Rebecca Moore Howard’s definition of patch-writing], but they still show a lack of recognition on the students’ part that authorship is valuable and that published writing is more than a product for the taking.” Ritter’s insight is valuable because it recognizes that even deliberate cheating is a strategic choice that students make based on a weighted analysis of “interconnected economic, academic, and personal needs,” and reveals how an emphasis on “ownership” and writing as property can contribute to an environment in which students come to view writing as a commodity and themselves as consumers, rather than as producers and authors.
 · not-read · plagiarism

users.drew.edu > Betrand Russell
Free Thought and Official Propaganda
1 jan. 1920 - Moncure Conway, in whose honour we are assembled today, devoted his life to two great objects: freedom of thought and freedom of the individual. In regard to both these objects, something has been gained since his time, but something also has been lost. New dangers, somewhat different in form from those of past ages, threaten both kinds of freedom, and unless a vigorous and vigilant public opinion can be aroused in defence of them, there will be much less of both a hundred years hence than there is now. My purpose in this address is to emphasize the new dangers and to consider how they can be met.
 · freedom-of-speech · not-read · philosophy